Carlos Alvarado Quesada , who supports LGBT rights and favors the implementation of the ruling, won the election with On 8 August , the Supreme Court of Costa Rica ruled that the prohibition of same-sex marriage in the Family Code is unconstitutional, giving Congress 18 months to reform the law or the prohibition will be automatically lifted without legislation so it will be legal after 26 May On 25 May , Denmark wrote history as the first country to make it legal to be in a registered partnership with one of the same sex.
A registered partnership was the same as a civil marriage, but was not seen as marriage in the eyes of the church. Axel and Eigil Axgil were the first ones to get married this way. On 7 June , the Folketing Danish Parliament approved new laws regarding same-sex civil and religious marriage. These laws permit same-sex couples to get married in the Church of Denmark.
The bills received royal assent on 12 June and took effect on 15 June On 26 May , Greenland , one of two other constituent countries in the Realm of Denmark , unanimously passed a law legalising same-sex marriage. The bill passed its second reading on 26 April and was approved at its third reading on 29 April by 19 votes to The law took effect on 1 July Registered partnerships have been legal in Finland since A citizens' initiative was launched to put the issue before the Parliament of Finland. The bill passed the second and final vote by —90 on 12 December ,  and was signed by the President on 20 February The law took effect on 1 March Since November , France has had a civil union scheme known as a civil solidarity pact that is open to both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.
The French Government introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, Bill , in the National Assembly on 17 November Article 1 of the bill defining marriage as an agreement between two people was passed on 2 February in its first reading by a —97 vote. On 12 February , the National Assembly approved the entire bill in a — vote. On 12 April , the upper house of the French Parliament voted to legalise same-sex marriage.
The law also allows the recognition in France of same-sex couples' marriages that occurred abroad before the bill's enactment. The main right-wing opposition party UMP challenged the law in the Constitutional Council , which had one month to rule on whether the law conformed to the Constitution. The Constitutional Council had previously ruled that the issue of same-sex marriage was one for the Parliament to decide and there was only little hope for UMP to overturn the Parliament's vote. Prior to the legalisation of same-sex marriage, Germany was one of the first countries to legislate registered partnerships Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft for same-sex couples, which provided most of the rights of marriage.
The law came into effect on 1 August , and the act was progressively amended on subsequent occasions to reflect court rulings expanding the rights of registered partners. Same-sex marriage has been legal in Germany since 1 October Same-sex marriage was introduced in Iceland through legislation establishing a gender-neutral definition of marriage introduced by the Coalition Government of the Social Democratic Alliance and Left-Green Movement.
The legislation was passed unanimously by the Icelandic Althing on 11 June , and took effect on 27 June , replacing an earlier system of registered partnerships for same-sex couples. Prior to the legalization of same-sex marriage, the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act allowed same sex couples to enter civil partnerships. The Act came into force on 1 January and gave same-sex couples rights and responsibilities similar to, but not equal to, those of civil marriage.
On 22 May , Ireland held a referendum. The referendum proposed to add to the Irish Constitution: Higgins signed the result of the May referendum into law,  which made Ireland the first country in the world to approve same-sex marriage at a nationwide referendum. The Parliament approved a bill to legalise same-sex marriage on 18 June Prime Minister Xavier Bettel married Gauthier Destenay, with whom he had been in a civil partnership since Malta has recognized same-sex unions since April , following the enactment of the Civil Unions Act , first introduced in September It established civil unions with same rights, responsibilities, and obligations as marriage, including the right of joint adoption and recognition of foreign same-sex marriage.
The first foreign same-sex marriage was registered on 29 April and the first civil union was performed on 14 June It was signed into law and published in the Government Gazette on 1 August In individual cases, same-sex couples have been given judicial approval to marry in all other states. Since August , same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception. On 21 December , the Federal District 's Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples. The law was enacted eight days later and became effective in early March On 28 November , the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after it was discovered that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage,  but these marriages were later annulled by the Governor of Quintana Roo in April On 11 February , the Congress of Coahuila approved adoptions by same-sex couples.
A bill legalizing same-sex marriages passed on 1 September , making Coahuila the first state and second jurisdiction after Mexico City to reform its Civil Code to allow for legal same-sex marriages. On 12 June , the Governor of Chihuahua announced that his administration would no longer oppose same-sex marriages in the state. The order was effective immediately, thus making Chihuahua the third state to legalize such unions.
On 3 June , the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation released a "jurisprudential thesis" which found state-laws defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman unconstitutional. The ruling standardized court procedures across Mexico to authorize same-sex marriages. However, the process is still lengthy and more expensive than that for an opposite-sex marriage, as the ruling did not invalidate any state laws, meaning same-sex couples will be denied the right to wed and will have to turn to the courts for individual injunctions Spanish: However, given the nature of the ruling, judges and courts throughout Mexico must approve any application for a same-sex marriage.
On 25 June , following the Supreme Court's ruling striking down district same-sex marriage bans, the Civil Registry of Guerrero announced that they had planned a collective same-sex marriage ceremony for 10 July and indicated that there would have to be a change to the law to allow gender-neutral marriage, passed through the state Legislature before the official commencement. On 17 December , the Congress of Nayarit approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. The Netherlands was the first country to extend marriage laws to include same-sex couples, following the recommendation of a special commission appointed to investigate the issue in A same-sex marriage bill passed the House of Representatives and the Senate in , taking effect on 1 April In the Dutch Caribbean special municipalities of Bonaire , Sint Eustatius and Saba , marriage is open to same-sex couples.
A law enabling same-sex couples to marry in these municipalities passed and came into effect on 10 October New Zealand's dependent territory, Tokelau , and associated states, Cook Islands and Niue , have their own marriage laws and do not perform or recognise same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage became legal in Norway on 1 January when a gender-neutral marriage bill was enacted after being passed by the Norwegian legislature, the Storting , in June Gender-neutral marriage replaced Norway's previous system of registered partnerships for same-sex couples.
Couples in registered partnerships are able to retain that status or convert their registered partnership to a marriage. No new registered partnerships may be created. Portugal created de facto unions similar to common-law marriage for cohabiting opposite-sex partners in , and extended these unions to same-sex couples in However, the extension did not allow for same-sex adoption, either jointly or of stepchildren.
On 11 February , Parliament approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. The Portuguese President promulgated the law on 8 April and the law was effective on 5 June , making Portugal the eighth country to legalize nationwide same-sex marriage; however, adoption was still denied for same-sex couples. In December , the Portuguese Parliament approved a bill to recognise adoptions rights for same-sex couples. Legal recognition of same-sex marriages in South Africa came about as a result of the Constitutional Court 's decision in the case of Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie. The court ruled on 1 December that the existing marriage laws violated the equality clause of the Bill of Rights because they discriminated on the basis of sexual orientation.
The court gave Parliament one year to rectify the inequality. It became law on 30 November South Africa became the fifth country, the first in Africa, and the second outside Europe, to legalize same-sex marriage. Spain was the third country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage, which has been legal since 3 July , and was supported by the majority of the Spanish people. King Juan Carlos , who by law has up to 30 days to decide whether to grant royal assent to laws, signed it on 1 July The law was published on 2 July Same-sex marriage in Sweden has been legal since 1 May , following the adoption of a new gender-neutral law on marriage by the Swedish Parliament on 1 April , making Sweden the seventh country in the world to open marriage to same-sex couples nationwide.
Marriage replaced Sweden's registered partnerships for same-sex couples. Existing registered partnerships between same-sex couples remained in force with an option to convert them into marriages. Since , same-sex couples have been allowed to enter into civil partnerships , a separate union providing the legal consequences of marriage. In , the High Court rejected a legal bid by a British lesbian couple who had married in Canada to have their union recognised as a marriage in the UK rather than a civil partnership.
In September , the Coalition Government announced its intention to introduce same-sex civil marriage in England and Wales by the May general election. In May , three religious groups Quakers, Liberal Judaism and Unitarians sent a letter to David Cameron, asking that they be allowed to solemnise same-sex weddings. In June , the UK Government completed the consultation to allow civil marriage for same-sex couples in England and Wales. In December , the Prime Minister, David Cameron , announced that, whilst he favoured allowing same-sex marriage within a religious context, provision would be made guaranteeing no religious institution would be required to perform such ceremonies.
The Scottish Government conducted a three-month-long consultation which ended on 9 December The analysis was published in July Whilst the Scottish Government was in favour of same-sex marriage, it stated that no religious body would be forced to hold such ceremonies once legislation is enacted. On 4 February , the Scottish Parliament overwhelmingly passed legislation legalising same-sex marriage. The Northern Ireland Executive has stated that it does not intend to introduce legislation allowing for same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland.
Same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions are treated as civil partnerships. In February , Bermuda passed the Domestic Partnership Act , revoking same-sex marriage, which had been legalised by a May Supreme Court ruling. On 23 November , the court upheld the Supreme Court's ruling, by which same-sex marriage became again legal in Bermuda.
In the Crown dependencies , same-sex marriage has been legal in the Isle of Man since 22 July , in Guernsey and Alderney since 2 May and 14 June , respectively and in Jersey since 1 July Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded from one state in to all fifty states in through various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes, and federal court rulings. The fifty states each have separate marriage laws , which must adhere to rulings by the Supreme Court of the United States that recognize marriage as a fundamental right that is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , as first established in the landmark civil rights case of Loving v.
Civil rights campaigning in support of marriage without distinction as to sex or sexual orientation began in the s. Nelson saw the Supreme Court of the United States decline to become involved. Lewin that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. That ruling led to federal and state actions to explicitly abridge marriage on the basis of sex in order to prevent the marriages of same-sex couples from being recognized by law, the most prominent of which was the federal DOMA.
Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. From through to , as the tide of public opinion continued to move towards support of same-sex marriage, various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes referendums and initiatives , and federal court rulings established same-sex marriage in thirty-six of the fifty states.
The first two decades of the 21st century saw same-sex marriage receive support from prominent figures in the civil rights movement , including Coretta Scott King , John Lewis , Julian Bond , and Mildred Loving. Windsor , leading to federal recognition of same-sex marriage, with federal benefits for married couples connected to either the state of residence or the state in which the marriage was solemnized.
Hodges that the fundamental right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The ruling of the Supreme Court in Obergefell occurred following decades of consistently rising national public support for same-sex marriage in the United States , with support continuing to rise thereafter.
The United States of America is the most populous country in the world to have established same-sex marriage nationwide. Uruguay's Chamber of Deputies passed a bill on 12 December , to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples. On 10 April , the Chamber of Deputies passed the amended bill by a two-thirds majority 71— The president promulgated the law on 3 May and it took effect on 5 August. Armenia has historically had few protections or recognition in law of same-sex couples.
This changed in July , when the Ministry of Justice revealed that all marriages performed abroad are valid in Armenia, including marriages between people of the same sex. As of early , "no such recognition has yet been documented. The Bulgarian Constitution forbids the legalisation of same-sex marriage, stipulating that marriage can only be between a man and a woman.
In late , a Bulgarian same-sex couple, who married in the United Kingdom , filed a lawsuit in order to have their marriage recognised. The couple, an Australian woman and her French spouse, had married in France in , but were denied residency in Bulgaria a year later when they attempted to move there. Michelle Bachelet , the President of Chile, who was elected to a second term in March , promised to work for the implementation of same-sex marriage and had a majority in both houses of Congress.
Previously, she said, "Marriage equality, I believe we have to make it happen. The Government announced that they would drop their opposition to same-sex marriage. A formal agreement between the two parties and the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights was signed in April On 28 January , the National Congress approved a bill recognizing civil unions for same-sex and opposite-sex couples offering some of the rights of marriage. Bachelet signed the bill on 14 April, and it came into effect on 22 October. In September , President Bachelet stated before a United Nations General Assembly panel that the Chilean Government would submit a same-sex marriage bill to Congress in the first half of The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Chile.
The Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China explicitly defines marriage as the union between one man and one woman. No other form of civil union is recognized. The attitude of the Chinese Government towards homosexuality is believed to be "three nos": According to Chinese law, 35 delegates' signatures are needed to make an issue a bill to be discussed in the Congress. Her efforts failed due to lack of support from the delegates. He argued that same-sex marriage was not recognized even in many Western countries, which are considered much more liberal in social issues than China.
On 5 January , a court in Changsha , southern Hunan Province , agreed to hear the lawsuit of year-old Sun Wenlin filed in December against the Bureau of Civil Affairs of Furong District for its June refusal to let him marry his year-old male partner, Hu Mingliang. On 13 April , with hundreds of same-sex marriage supporters outside, the Changsha court ruled against Sun, who vowed to appeal, citing the importance of his case for LGBT progress in China. Currently, Article 36 of the Constitution of Cuba defines marriage as "the voluntarily established union between a man and a woman".
Before the October election , LGBT activists started a public campaign with the aim of achieving same-sex marriage within the next four years. In , gay rights activist Pamela Troya filed a lawsuit to strike down Ecuador's same-sex marriage ban and legalise same-sex marriage in the country. The lawsuit remains pending. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Ecuador.
In May , the Ecuador Supreme Court ruled, in a lesbian parenting case, that the IACHR ruling is fully binding on Ecuador and that the country must also implement the ruling in due course. However, the Civil Registry has appealed the rulings, preventing their coming into force. In August , a lawyer in El Salvador filed a lawsuit before the Supreme Court of El Salvador asking for the nullification of Article 11 of the Family Code which defines marriage as a heterosexual union.
Labeling the law as discriminatory and explaining the lack of gendered terms used in Article 34 of the Constitution's summary of a marriage, the lawsuit seeks to allow same-sex couples the right to wed. In October , the Estonian legislature, the Riigikogu , approved a civil union law open to both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.
In December , the Tallinn Circuit Court ruled that same-sex marriages concluded in another country must be recorded in the civil registry. However, they do not count as marriages for the purpose of granting spousal residency rights. In , a man filed a challenge against Georgia's same-sex marriage ban, arguing that while the Civil Code of Georgia states that marriage is explicitly between a man and a woman; the Constitution does not reference gender in its section on marriage. In September , the Georgian Parliament approved a constitutional amendment establishing marriage as "a union between a woman and a man for the purpose of creating a family".
Parliament overrode his veto on 13 October. Same-sex marriage is not explicitly prohibited under Indian law and at least one couple has had their marriage recognised by the courts. In April , Medha Patkar of the Aam Aadmi Party stated that her party supports the legalisation of same-sex marriage. As of , a draft of a Uniform Civil Code that would legalise same-sex marriage has been proposed.
In , Israel's High Court of Justice ruled to recognize foreign same-sex marriages for the limited purpose of registration with the Administration of Border Crossings, Population and Immigration; however, this is merely for statistical purposes and grants no state-level rights. Israel does not recognize civil marriages performed under its own jurisdiction. A bill was raised in the Knesset Israeli Parliament to rescind the High Court's ruling, but the Knesset did not advance the bill.
A bill to legalize same-sex and interfaith civil marriages was defeated in the Knesset, 39—11, on 16 May In November , the National LGBT Taskforce of Israel petitioned the Supreme Court of Israel to allow same-sex marriage in the country, arguing that the refusal of the rabbinical court to recognise same-sex marriage should not prevent civil courts from performing same-sex marriages. Opinion polls have shown that Israelis overwhelmingly support recognizing same-sex unions. The cities of Bologna , Naples and Fano began recognizing same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions in July ,   followed by Empoli , Pordenone , Udine and Trieste in September,    and Florence , Piombino , Milan and Rome in October,   and by Bagheria in November.
A January Datamonitor poll found that On 25 February , the Italian Senate passed a bill allowing civil unions with senators in favour and 73 against. That same bill was approved by the Chamber of Deputies on 11 May with deputies in favour and 51 against. On 31 January , the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation ruled that same-sex marriages performed abroad can be fully recognized by court order, when at least one of the two spouses is a citizen of a European Union country where same-sex marriage is legal.
Same-sex marriage is not legal in Japan. Article 24 of the Japanese Constitution states that "Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis. On 27 May , the Constitutional Court of Latvia overturned an administrative court decision which refused an application to register a same-sex marriage in the country.
A Supreme Court press spokeswoman said that the court agrees with the administrative court that current regulations do not allow for same-sex marriages to be legally performed in Latvia. However, the matter should have been considered in a context not of marriage, but of registering familial partnership.
Furthermore, it would have been impossible to conclude whether the applicants' rights were violated or not unless their claim is accepted and reviewed in a proper manner. In November , the Supreme Court of Nepal issued final judgment on matters related to LGBT rights, which included permitting same-sex couples to marry.
Same-sex marriage and protection for sexual minorities were to be included in the new Nepalese Constitution required to be completed by 31 May In October , the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare constituted a committee for the purpose of preparing a draft bill to legalize same-sex marriage. On 17 October , a married same-sex couple filed an action of unconstitutionality seeking to recognise same-sex marriages performed abroad. As the Supreme Court was deliberating on the two cases, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled on 9 January that countries signatory to the American Convention on Human Rights must legalise same-sex marriage.
On 16 January, the Panamanian Government welcomed the decision. Vice President Isabel Saint Malo , speaking on behalf of the Government, announced that the country would fully abide by the ruling. Official notices, requiring compliance with the ruling, were sent out to various governmental departments that same day. On 14 February , a bill legalizing same-sex marriage was introduced in the Peruvian Congress. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Peru.
Same-sex marriages and civil unions are currently not recognized by the state, the illegal insurgent Communist Party of the Philippines performs same-sex marriages in territories under its control since President Rodrigo Duterte supports the legalization of same-sex marriage, but feels that such a law may not pass in Congress yet as many are still influenced heavily by colonial-era Christian ideals. He also supports same-sex civil unions, which has a higher possibility for passage and is supported by the majority of congresspersons.
On 19 June , the Supreme Court of the Philippines heard oral arguments in a case seeking to legalise same-sex marriage in the Philippines. On 5 June , the European Court of Justice ECJ ruled, in a case originating from Romania, that same-sex couples have the same residency rights as different-sex couples, when a national of an EU country gets married while resident in an EU country where same-sex marriage is legal, and the spouse is from a non-EU country.
In December , the eco-socialist United Left party introduced a bill amending the definition of marriage in the Marriage and Family Relations Act to include same-sex couples. In January , the Government expressed no opposition to the bill. In February , the bill was passed with 11 votes to 2. In March, the Assembly passed the final bill in a 51—28 vote. On 10 March , the National Council rejected a motion to require the Assembly to vote on the bill again, in a 14—23 vote.
Opponents of the bill launched a petition for a referendum and managed to collect 40, signatures. The Parliament then voted to block the referendum with a clarification that it would be against the Slovenian Constitution to vote on matters concerning human rights. Finally, the Constitutional Court ruled against the banning of the referendum 5—4 and the referendum was held on 20 December In the referendum, In July , Kim Jho Kwang-soo and his partner, Kim Seung-Hwan, filed a lawsuit seeking legal status for their marriage after their marriage registration form was rejected by the local authorities in Seoul.
On 25 May , a South Korean district court ruled against the couple and argued that without clear legislation a same-sex union can not be recognized as a marriage. Their lawyer, Ryu Min-Hee, announced that two more same-sex couples had filed separate lawsuits in order to be allowed to wed. In December , a South Korean appeals court upheld the district court ruling.
The couple vowed to bring the case to the Supreme Court of South Korea. A same-sex marriage bill is pending in Parliament after the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland ,  introduced a constitutional initiative to legalize same-sex marriage in December , in opposition to a Christian Democrat initiative banning same-sex marriage. In March , the Swiss Federal Council released a governmental report about marriage and new rights for families.
It opens the possibility to introduce registered partnerships for different-sex couples as well as same-sex marriage for same-sex couples. This initiative would change article 14 of the Swiss Federal Constitution and aimed to put equal fiscal rights and equal social security benefits between married couples and unmarried cohabiting couples. However, the text aimed to introduce as well in the Constitution for the first time ever the definition of marriage, which would be the sole "union between a man and a woman". On 22 December , a proposed amendment to the Civil Code which would legalize same-sex marriage was due to go under review by the Judiciary Committee.
If the amendment passes the committee stage, it will then be voted on at the plenary session of the Legislative Yuan in The amendment, called the marriage equality amendment, would insert neutral terms into the Civil Code replacing ones that imply heterosexual marriage, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage. It would also allow same-sex couples to adopt children. In October , two new same-sex marriage bills were introduced to the Legislative Yuan.
Subsequently, protests have been staged by groups opposing and by groups supporting legalization. On 24 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that same-sex couples have the right to marry, and gave the Taiwanese Government two years to amend the law to that effect. If the law is not amended after two years, same-sex couples will be able to register a valid marriage application in Taiwan. In April , the Supreme Court announced it would hear a lawsuit which seeks to declare Article 44 of the Civil Code unconstitutional for outlawing same-sex marriage.
In Vietnam, currently only a marriage between a man and a woman is recognized. Vietnam's Ministry of Justice began seeking advice on legalizing same-sex marriage from other governmental and non-governmental organizations in April and May , and planned to further discuss the issue at the National Assembly in Spring The Vietnamese Government abolished an administrative fine imposed on same-sex weddings in Although same-sex marriages are not permitted in Vietnam, the policy will decriminalize the relationship, habitual privileges such as household registry, property, child raising, and co-habitual partnerships are recognized.
In June , the National Assembly began formal debate on a proposal to establish legal recognition for same-sex marriage. The decree took effect on 11 November On 27 May , the National Assembly's Committee for Social Affairs removed the provision giving legal status and some rights to cohabiting same-sex couples from the Government's bill to amend the Law on Marriage and Family. On 1 January , the Law on Marriage and Family officially went into effect. It states that while Vietnam allows same-sex weddings, it will not offer legal recognition or protection to unions between people of the same sex.
The terms of employment of the staff of international organizations not commercial in most cases are not governed by the laws of the country where their offices are located. Agreements with the host country safeguard these organizations' impartiality. Despite their relative independence, few organizations recognize same-sex partnerships without condition. The agencies of the United Nations recognize same-sex marriages if the country of citizenship of the employees in question recognizes the marriage. However, the World Bank does recognize domestic partners.
Civil union, civil partnership , domestic partnership , registered partnership , unregistered partnership, and unregistered cohabitation statuses offer varying legal benefits of marriage. As of December , countries that have an alternative form of legal recognition other than marriage on a national level are: On a subnational level, the Mexican state of Tlaxcala , the Dutch constituent country of Aruba and Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom allow same-sex couples to access civil unions or partnerships, but restrict marriage to couples of the opposite sex.
Additionally, various cities and counties in Cambodia , Japan and Taiwan offer same-sex couples varying levels of benefits, which include hospital visitation rights and others. Additionally, fifteen countries which have legalized same-sex marriage still have an alternative form of legal recognition for same-sex couples, usually available to heterosexual couples as well: Female same-sex marriage is practiced among the Gikuyu , Nandi , Kamba , Kipsigis , and to a lesser extent neighboring peoples.
However, this is not seen as homosexual, but is instead a way for families without sons to keep their inheritance within the family. In Nigeria, homosexual activity between men, but not between women, is illegal. In , Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo introduced legislation that prohibits same-sex marriages and criminalizes anyone who "performs, witnesses, aids or abets" such ceremonies. Among the Igbo people and probably other peoples in the south of the country, there are circumstances where a marriage between women is considered appropriate, such as when a woman has no child and her husband dies, and she takes a wife to perpetuate her inheritance and family lineage.
While few societies have recognized same-sex unions as marriages, the historical and anthropological record reveals a large range of attitudes towards same-sex unions ranging from praise, through full acceptance and integration, sympathetic toleration, indifference, prohibition and discrimination, to persecution and physical annihilation.
Scientific literature indicates that parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally recognized union either a mixed-sex or same-sex union. As a result, professional scientific associations have argued for same-sex marriage to be legally recognized as it will be beneficial to the children of same-sex parents or carers. Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents.
All states that allow same-sex marriage also allow the joint adoption of children by people of the same sex, with the exceptions of Jalisco, Nayarit and Quintana Roo in Mexico. In addition, Andorra and Israel as well as several subnational jurisdictions which do not recognize same-sex marriage nonetheless permit joint adoption by unmarried same-sex couples: Some additional states allow stepchild adoption by those who are in a same-sex relationship but are unmarried: Croatia , Estonia , Italy on a case-by-case basis , Slovenia and Switzerland.
A gay or bisexual man has the option of surrogacy , the process in which a woman bears a child for another person through artificial insemination or carries another woman's surgically implanted fertilized egg to birth. A lesbian or bisexual woman has the option of artificial insemination.
When sex is defined legally, it may be defined by any one of several criteria: In any legal jurisdiction where marriages are defined without distinction of a requirement of a male and female, these complications do not occur. In addition, some legal jurisdictions recognize a legal and official change of gender, which would allow a transgender male or female to be legally married in accordance with an adopted gender identity.
In the United Kingdom, the Gender Recognition Act allows a person who has lived in their chosen gender for at least two years to receive a gender recognition certificate officially recognizing their new gender. Such people are then free to enter or re-enter civil partnerships or marriages in accordance with their newly recognized gender identity. In Austria, a similar provision requiring transsexual people to divorce before having their legal sex marker corrected was found to be unconstitutional in In Quebec, prior to the legalization of same-sex marriage, only unmarried people could apply for legal change of gender.
With the advent of same-sex marriage, this restriction was dropped. A similar provision including sterilization also existed in Sweden, but was phased out in In the United States, transgender and intersex marriages typically run into similar complications. In the United States of America before the case of Obergefell v. Hodges , couples in same-sex marriages could only obtain a divorce in jurisdictions that recognized same-sex marriages, with some exceptions. There are differing positions regarding the manner in which same-sex marriage has been introduced into democratic jurisdictions. A " majority rules " position holds that same-sex marriage is valid, or void and illegal, based upon whether it has been accepted by a simple majority of voters or of their elected representatives.
In contrast, a civil rights view holds that the institution can be validly created through the ruling of an impartial judiciary carefully examining the questioning and finding that the right to marry regardless of the gender of the participants is guaranteed under the civil rights laws of the jurisdiction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Marriage equality disambiguation. For the book, see Gay Marriage book. Same-sex union legislation Same-sex union court cases Timeline of same-sex marriage Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa Recognition of same-sex unions in Asia Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania Marriage privatization Divorce of same-sex couples Domestic partnership Military policy Adoption Listings by country.
Sexual orientation. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States and Public opinion of same-sex marriage in Australia.
Indicates that same-sex marriage is legal in certain parts of the country. Indicates that the country has civil unions or registered partnerships. Indicates that same-sex sexual activity is illegal. Main articles: History of same-sex unions , Timeline of same-sex marriage , and History of homosexuality. Main article: Timeline of same-sex marriage. Status of same-sex marriage and Same-sex union legislation. Marriage open to same-sex couples rings: Legislation or binding domestic court ruling establishing same-sex marriage, but marriage is not yet provided for.
Same-sex marriage recognized when performed in certain other jurisdictions, and accorded greater rights than local same-sex unions if any. Civil unions or domestic partnerships. Limited legal recognition partnership certificates, residency rights for foreign spouses, etc. Country subject to an international court ruling to recognize same-sex marriage.
Same-sex unions not legally recognized. Same-sex marriage in Argentina. Same-sex marriage in Australia. Same-sex marriage in Austria. Same-sex marriage in Belgium. Same-sex marriage in Brazil. Other type of partnership. Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples. Same-sex sexual activity illegal. Same-sex marriage in Canada. Same-sex marriage in Colombia. Same-sex marriage. Unregistered cohabitation. Foreign same-sex marriages recognized. No recognition of same-sex couples. Same-sex sexual activity illegal but not enforced. Same-sex sexual activity illegal only for males. Same-sex sexual activity illegal for males and females.
Recognition of same-sex unions in Costa Rica. Same-sex marriage in Denmark. Foreign marriages recognized as marriage in Israel, with unclear rights in Estonia. Same-sex marriage in Finland. Same-sex marriage in France. Same-sex marriage in Germany. Same-sex marriage in Iceland. Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland. Same-sex marriage in Luxembourg. Same-sex marriage in Malta. Same-sex marriage in Mexico. Civil unions; marriage by "amparo" only. Court order requires implementation of marriage. Marriage by amparo or by traveling out of state.
Same-sex marriage in the Netherlands. Same-sex marriage in New Zealand. Limited recognition of same-sex marriages at the federal level, no territory level recognition. No recognition. Homosexuality illegal. Same-sex marriage in Norway. Same-sex marriage in Portugal. De facto union in Portugal.
Same-sex marriage in South Africa. Same-sex marriage in Spain. Same-sex marriage in Sweden. Same-sex marriage performed. Same-sex marriage recognized. Unrecognized or unknown. Same-sex sexual activity illegal but no longer enforced. Same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom. Same-sex marriage in the United States. Same-sex marriage in Uruguay. Recognition of same-sex unions in Armenia. Recognition of same-sex unions in Bulgaria.
Recognition of same-sex unions in Chile. Recognition of same-sex unions in China. Recognition of same-sex unions in Cuba. Recognition of same-sex unions in the Czech Republic. Recognition of same-sex unions in Ecuador. Recognition of same-sex unions in El Salvador. Recognition of same-sex unions in Estonia.
LGBT rights in Georgia country. Recognition of same-sex unions in India. Recognition of same-sex unions in Israel. Recognition of same-sex unions in Italy. Recognition of same-sex unions in Japan. Recognition of same-sex unions in Latvia. Recognition of same-sex unions in Nepal. LGBT rights in Panama. LGBT rights in Peru. Recognition of same-sex unions in Romania. Recognition of same-sex unions in Slovenia. Recognition of same-sex unions in South Korea. Recognition of same-sex unions in Switzerland.
Same-sex marriage in Taiwan. Recognition of same-sex unions in Venezuela. Recognition of same-sex unions in Vietnam. Civil union. LGBT rights in Kenya. Same-sex marriage in Nigeria. LGBT rights opposition.
LGBT parenting and Same-sex marriage and the family. Joint adoption allowed 1. Second-parent stepchild adoption allowed 2. No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples. LGBT adoption. Assisted reproductive technology. This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Transgender , Transgender rights , Intersex , and Intersex human rights. Divorce of same-sex couples. LGBT portal Sexuality portal. Marriages entered into in these jurisdictions are fully recognized by law throughout Mexico. Upon the end of the grace period, same-sex marriage automatically becomes established by law in these countries. Dominica , Grenada and Jamaica , which are also signatories to the convention, have not agreed to the court's blanket jurisdiction.
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The historical concept and definition of sexual orientation varies and has changed greatly over time; for example the word "gay" wasn't used to describe sexual orientation until the mid 20th century. A number of different classification schemes have been used to describe sexual orientation since the midth century, and scholars have often defined the term "sexual orientation" in divergent ways.
Indeed, several studies have found that much of the research about sexual orientation has failed to define the term at all, making it difficult to reconcile the results of different studies. Some prefer to simply follow an individual's self-definition or identity. See homosexuality and bisexuality for criteria that have traditionally denoted lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB people.
The high prevalence of people from the West on this list may be due to societal attitudes towards homosexuality. But there is far greater tolerance for homosexuality in major Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil. Opinion in Europe is split between West and East. Majorities in every Western European nation surveyed say homosexuality should be accepted by society, while most Russians, Poles and Ukrainians disagree. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Journal of Homosexuality.
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